ARTEMISIA ANNUA EXTRACT/ARTEMISININ
Artemisia annua is An herb that has been used in traditional Chinese medicine and been noted for
its compounds that can effectively treat malaria. Sweet Annie (Artemisia annua L., Asteraceae),
also called sweet wormwood, is sometimes referred to by its Chinese name qing hao (green herb).
Artemisinin, and some of the related compounds derived directly from the herb, are sometimes
referred to as quinghaosu (extract of green herb). These compounds, and their synthetic derivatives,
have been described in The New York Times as"trikingly effective against malaria”.
Artemisia annua Extract
1. Antimalarial, artemisinin has killing effect on the parasite within red blood cells, it can inhibit
the parasite's maturity quickly;
2. Antibacterial, artemisinin has anti-influenza virus effect;
3. Anti-parasite, artemisinin on the role of anti-schistosomiasis and leptospirosis.
The clinical efficacy of artemisinin and its derivatives against all forms of human malaria,
particularly Plasmodium falciparum , have been proven. Hundreds of studies have been published,
most from Asia and Africa, but only selected investigations on this efficacy will be discussed,
including use against uncomplicated and complicated malaria. Pharmacoeconomic studies support
the cost-effectiveness of artemisinin-based combinations in combating malaria in developing
Other reported pharmacological activity includes cytotoxic activity against cancer cells, the
essential oil inhibition of the growth of the gram-positive bacterium Enterococcus hirae , and
growth inhibition of several phytopathogenic fungi by extracts.
Artemisinin and its derivatives are toxic to the malarial parasite at nanomolar concentrations,
causing specific membrane structural changes in the erythrocyte stage that kill the parasite. In
general, the mechanism of action involves 2 steps: activation followed by alkylation. Iron activates
artemisinin into a free radical through an iron-mediated cleavage. The second step, alkylation,
involves the formation of covalent bonds between the artemisinin-derived free radicals and the
Artemisinins are generally well tolerated at the doses used to treat malaria.The side effects from the
artemisinin class of medications are similar to the symptoms of malaria: nausea, vomiting, anorexia,
and dizziness. Mild blood abnormalities have also been noted. A rare but serious adverse effect is
allergic reaction.One case of significant liver inflammation has been reported in association with
prolonged use of a relatively high-dose of artemisinin for an unclear reason (the patient did not
have malaria).The drugs used in combination therapies can contribute to the adverse effects
experienced by those undergoing treatment. Adverse effects in patients with acute P. falciparum
malaria treated with artemisinin derivatives tend to be higher.